Science of Human Behavior
All of us are products of biochemistry. For at least 3.5 billion years, life has evolved from primitive organisms into the complexity we humans experience. Yet the simple secret to how life works can be found in its four key atomic elements—each of which functions in its own unique way to perform biochemical activities. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was.
The Four Basic Elements
The ‘atomic number’ for each element is the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus. The simplest element in the universe—Hydrogen, with the atomic number 1—has just one proton. Other elements that are vital to life on Earth are: Carbon with 6 protons, Nitrogen 7 protons, and Oxygen 8 protons. And to round out this concept of atomic structure, the number of orbiting, negatively charged electrons usually matches the number of protons in the central nucleus. So, for example, Carbon has 6 negatively charged electrons orbiting around its nucleus that includes 6 positively charged protons and 6 neutrons.
Hydrogen (H) is the simplest element in the universe. Just 1 electron orbits in a single valence shell that can hold 2 electrons. Since the most highly reactive elements are those with either (a) just one electron in their outer shell, or (b) just one electron missing from having a complete shell, Hydrogen meets both conditions. Therefore, it readily combines with most elements, making it the unparalleled master at ‘working electron deals’ to form chemical compounds. Hydrogen’s Bonding abilities, both atom-to-atom and molecule-to-molecule, are fundamental to making the stuff of life. Its characteristic skill is easily sharing electrons for amalgamating all sorts of useful compounds.
Carbon (C) is the essential ingredient in all organic compounds. 2 of Carbon’s 6 electrons fill the atom’s inner shell, leaving 4 others as valence electrons to occupy a second shell that can hold 8 electrons. Thus, Carbon can share 4 of its electrons with other atoms and also share 4 electrons from others, including other Carbon atoms. This structure gives it the ability to ‘catenate’—that is, to sequentially link atoms into long, chain molecules that exhibit great complexity and strength. Indeed, Carbon is unique among life’s key elements for its sequence-forming, Stabilizing capabilities, making it the ideal chemical workhorse for the assembly and durable maintenance of an almost infinite variety of stable compounds.
The Nitrogen (N) that is plentiful in our atmosphere has 5 valence electrons in its second shell. So in compounding, it typically takes on 3 electrons from other atoms. But, the strong Nitrogen-to-Nitrogen bond of N2 (as it exists in the air) makes Nitrogen mostly unreactive with other elements. Yet when compounds do let go of Nitrogen, large amounts of energy are released by breaking this element’s strong bonds. The ‘breakdown’ (or ‘decomposition’) of a compound is the separation of that compound into simpler compounds or its elements—the opposite of chemical synthesis. Of life’s ‘Big Four’ elements, Nitrogen has the greatest predisposition for the disintegration of compounds rather than integration, for Separating and reverting to its elemental N or N2 form.
Oxygen (O) is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and oceans. It has 8 electrons, 6 of which are in the outer valence shell. Since it needs just 2 electrons to fill its outer shell, it is highly reactive and readily forms compounds with most other elements. Oxygen has a special capacity for accepting the actual transfer of electrons snatched from other elements to become the oxidizing agent in ‘redox’ reactions such as respiration and photosynthesis. Redox reactions create a net molecular change in this process of transformation. ‘Metabolism’ is a set of chemical transformations that allow organisms to grow, reproduce, develop structures, and adapt to their environments. Many metabolic processes involve redox reactions, so without Oxygen’s ability to take on electrons and serve as an oxidizing agent, these processes could not exist. Oxygen not only has an Adapting ability to engage in both covalent bonding and electron transfer reactions, but its variability in forming reactions that produce mutations and other chemical vagaries has prompted life to develop adaptive techniques to cope with Oxygen’s changeable characteristics. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was.
The Four Chemical Elements of Our DNA Genetic Code
DNA’s four nucleobases are compounded from just four chemical elements. The molecular formula of the bases are: Adenine C5H5N5, Cytosine C4H5N3O, Guanine C5H5N5O, and Thymine C5H6N2O2.
Looking at the chemical formulae for the four bases, we see that except for Adenine they contain all of the ‘Big Four’ elements—but Adenine has no oxygen. This suggests that Adenine is not well suited for Adapting, but instead is employed for its Stabilizing skills. All of the bases contain nitrogen, but the one with the least amount of nitrogen is Thymine. This hints at Thymine representing the Bonding function, similar to hydrogen. And Thymine does contain more hydrogen than the other bases. Of the two remaining bases Guanine has more nitrogen, so perhaps this base handles a Separating function, much like nitrogen. That leaves Cytosine to play the Adapting role, similar to oxygen. And true to form, Cytosine has the least amount of carbon, so that fits, too. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was.
Dopamine, equips us for exploration and adventure. It serves Adapting functions that enable us to desire, imagine, take an interest, create, explore, learn, optimize benefits, enhance capabilities, and expand awareness. Novelty-seeking activities involve experimenting and taking risks so we can change and improve our condition.
The Stabilizing, conserving influences of Serotonin, regularize repetitive motor activity, mood, appetite, sleep cycle, pain control, and immune system function. This biochemical tends to inhibit information processing in the nervous system and may serve to coordinate functions as needed for the task at hand to facilitate orderliness, precision, conscientiousness, and adherence to plans, details, methods, and habits.
Testosterone,—facilitates gender differentiation, manages gender-driven physiological processes, and deals with the stresses of competition. Testosterone directs the organization of more lateralized brain architecture that promotes systematizing skills, such as analyzing, figuring out how things work, spatial acuity, targeting, competitive interests, and technical aptitude. Its physical and mental influences tend to enhance individual dominance—that is, isolating and setting one apart from others in order to gain a personal advantage. This Separating function is critical to the successful achievement of individual needs and desires.
Oxytocin influences pro-social behaviors, including the establishment of trust, reading emotions in others, empathy, attachment, sexual arousal, pair-bonding, and nurturing. These Bonding activities—such as empathizing and relating—benefit group needs and interests. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was.
The Rayid System - the Eyes Have It
Iridology, like Reflexology uses the hands and feet to locate pressure points for every organ in the body, the iris can point out health issues in all the same organs. Denny Johnson in 1978 discovered that there were four distinct personality types in the patterns of the iris. They also revealed inherited traits from an individuals mother (left eye) and father (right eye). Depending on whether the structure surrounding the pupil, convex or concave, determined introversion and extroversion. Whichever eye had the most spots and stuff yielded left/right brained dominance.
The major problem with the Rayid system, is at least 80% of the population has brown eyes. Even blue eyed folks require a special close-in camera to get a good image to study.
Professional cosmetic photographers leave their reflection b/c of the distance. Even so this model is and example of a Extroverted Flower-Stream (most people are a combination of two of the four types).
Shakers combine the extremes of flower and jewel characteristics to produce the fourth personality type - the extremist. Highly motivated, radical, dynamic individuals, they exhibit great persistence and are continually chasing a better way of doing things.
Stream irises indicate a kinesthetic individual - a key phrase is "in touch" since these individuals tend to interpret life's experiences through their physical being or their physical senses.
Jewels in the iris are indicative of a mental type. They are typically analytical thinkers expressing themselves through speech. Slow to acknowledge feelings, jewels prefer to rely on accumulating and classifying data to arrive at the 'correct' decision.
Flower irises indicate an emotional personality. Flowers are social individuals who are exciting (for others) to be around. Highly reactive and changeable - flowers are passionate, enthusiastic and generally fun to be with.
The Evolution of Astrology
All the physical, bio science, genetic code, even eyeball reading are static. Even a full genome workup, can't tell you what's going to happen tomorrow. "Where's the Beef?" How can we predict the future? Since time began man has used Astrology, with the naked eye and Astronomy, with instruments, to interpret the movements of the celestial entities. Gobeklitepe, as far as the science of archaeology can find, is the world's first Star Gazing Data Center.
A community of Bronze Age hunter-gatherers built without tools an astrologically oriented fellowship structure in Gobeklitepe, Turkey, 12,000 years ago, 2,000 years before agriculture. The Dr. Schmidt, a German archaeologist claims the geometric formation and NSEW orientation resembles the 4,500 yo 'Medicine Wheel' found in the Southwestern US. The hunter-gatherers carved - now extinct - animal figures, to adorn each of the four quadrants.
Star Gazing - Astrology - Religion - Astronomy - Psychology
| Evolution of Astrology
Native American tribes used traditional symbols to depict different kinds of temperaments. Their ‘Medicine Wheel’ is a circle that is divided into four quadrants by two strips of animal hide. The four ordinal points around this compass-like figure serve as a metaphor for four different perspectives on the circle of life. These are symbolized by the Buffalo (north) standing for cool wisdom, the Mouse (south) evoking innocent trust, the Bear (west) characterizing staying in place, and the Eagle (east) exemplifying illumination and vision. With the Buffalo opposite the Mouse and the Bear opposite the Eagle, the ‘wheel’ is consistent with our four-way diagram, except with the dominant Buffalo placed on top. This version of the Medicine Wheel is at least hundreds of years old. But some Native American ‘wheels’ (built of stones laid on the ground and having four or more spokes) date to as far back as 4,500 years ago. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was
The Chaldean's get the credit for stepping up to the plate and make prognostications of future events, way back in 400 BC. Although, they centered their operations in Babylon, to avoid the bright lights of Baghdad, they still missed two of the seven planets. However, their strong suit was numerology, cuneiform writing, forecasting Lunar-Solar eclipses.
The Chinese, who had been heavy into this astrology business, for over 5,000 years, were getting restless, like everybody else, waiting for Galileo to invent the telescope. Thrifty buggers, they rolled their love of Mah Jong, the invention of paper money, and playing cards all into one. Invented in China over 1,000 years ago, it wasn't until 1300 when Marco Polo returned to Italy with the paper money and cards - those mahjong tiles are way too heavy - that the Europeans put the cards and astrology together.
Mahjong, Chinese Monopoly
From 1370 CE, several European nations (Spain, Germany, Italy, France) devised their own variants of the Egyptian deck —all of which had four suits. shows the commonly-used current icons for the four card suits, which were developed by the French around 1480 CE.
Egyptian Mamluk cards French Royal Face cards
The French card suits reflect a deep intuitive expression of varied ways that people think and behave. The Spade is a descendant of the sword in the Tarot deck, a weapon for cleaving or separating one part from another.
It’s opposite—the spade- shape turned upside down —is the heart. Portrayed in red with two semi-circular mounds representing the heart organ, the Heart is a universal symbol for relating and caring. It denotes the bonding and connecting of separate entities. Turning to the other pair of opposing suits, the Club is a series of lobed shapes folded protectively into themselves. The icon derives from the mace, which is a heavy club borne by a ruling official as a ceremonial staff of office. The word ‘club’ implies membership and stability. The multi-faceted Diamond, however, is pointed in all four outward directions—implying openness to new ideas. When polished and cut in facets, diamonds disperse light in divergent rays, symbolic of creativity. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was
“Stop right here. You’re wasting my time. This symbolic, mystic stuff isn’t scientific.” Agreed, it’s not tested science; rather, it’s intuitive imagery. Unfortunately, people associate card suits with astrology and the occult. Yet as we will see, the four suits actually are a useful, readily understood shorthand for representing the four functions and temperament traits. It should be easy to see how the cutting Spade exemplifies analysis and individuation as Separating functions, while the Heart expresses synthesis and connection as Bonding roles. The Club stands for Stabilizing duties of regulating, protecting, and maintaining, while the Diamond suggests exploring and creating as Adapting qualities. Interestingly, the Spade and Club icons—usually shown in black—sit upon stems and appear to be grounded. But the Diamond and Heart— usually shown in red—have points at the bottom, as if dangling in space. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was
Olney Richmond Robert Lee Camp
In 1895 Olney Richmond, residing in south Michigan's hotbed of Dutch evangelism, put the math to the seance of card reading by anchoring a minimum of four cards to each day of the year' The personality cards were the birth card, an Ego card and a +karma and -karma. Akin, to the wobbly earth moving one degree every 72 years, completing its 360 degree sine curve path in a sprightly 25,920 years, humans do it in only 99. Richmond used ordinary playing cards as symbols for delineating the character traits of behavior as in Carl Jung's Quadrant Theory.
Linking Astrology to the 52 Playing Cards
The Fab-Four Cards remain fixed as your personal identity card.
They follow you through the seven planetary periods of 52 days beginning with Mercury followed by Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Each step gets two new cards to describe what happens next.
Four Brain Quadrants
The diagram notes the locations of the four lobes of the brain— occipital, temporal, frontal, and parietal—and the location of the Sylvian fissure, a large, highly visible crease that roughly divides the brain into top and bottom parts.
Psycho-metrics - Jungian Quadrant Theory
The genesis for many of today’s widely used personality tests is a system of Psychological Types published by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung in 1921. Jung postulated the existence of Four Functions of Consciousness that he conceived as two pairs of opposites. He named these functions: Thinking, Feeling, Sensation, and Intuition. Jung believed that while we each possess all of these cognitive capabilities, one of them tends to dominate. And at least one other—its ‘opposite’—stays undeveloped or even suppressed.
The first of these functions, Thinking, is the ability to think in a logical, analytical manner. Its opposite, the Feeling function, brings us into empathetic contact with other people and plays an important role in our appreciation of music, art, and literature. Both Thinking and Feeling are means by which we come to understand the world around us and our relationships with others. They are opposites in that one emphasizes a clear, systematic approach, while the other relies on more subtle, internal qualities. Although they are opposites, they both represent ways in which we deal with knowledge acquired through the senses and intuition. The latter two functions, Sensation and Intuition, which are also opposites, pertain to ways we perceive information: whether we understand it factually through our senses, or rather by means of intuition.
In addition to these ‘four functions,’ Jung also saw that people variously displayed what he called ‘attitudes’ of either Extroversion or Introversion. By assessing which attitude and which function dominated a person’s personality, he was able to develop eight ‘Psychological Types’ as common characteristics of temperament that displayed opposing features. For example, the traits of Introverted Thinking types were poles apart from those of Extroverted Feeling types. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was
In the early 1900s, American academician Katherine Cook Briggs began researching children’s education with the aim of helping individuals achieve greater happiness as they entered careers suited to their natural abilities. In 1917, Briggs postulated four temperament types that she named: Executive, Sociable, Meditative, and Spontaneous. Several years later she studied Jung’s newly published book about Psychological Types, and along with her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers, the mother-daughter team refined their own interpretation of Jung’s system of ‘four functions.’ With Myers eventually taking the lead by the 1940s, they began testing early versions of their now widely used Myers-Briggs Temperament Indicator (MBTI). For better test accuracy, Myers and Briggs added to Jung’s system another pair of opposing functions: Judging and Perceiving. They conceived of Judging as a predisposition for wanting things to be procedurally resolved and completed, whereas Perceiving represented a preference to stay open to creating new options and ideas. By their refinement, Jung’s eight ‘types’ were expanded to sixteen in the MBTI.
The MBTI terminology uses key letters as shorthand for the various functions and attitudes, thus forming labels for each of the sixteen types. For example, INFP is a quick reference for someone who tends toward Introversion, iNtuition, Feeling, and Perceiving. By obtaining an individual’s responses to just a dozen or so questions pertaining to each of their four sets of opposing functions and attitudes, the MBTI assesses a person’s natural temperament into one of sixteen types. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was
On a parallel track in the late 1920s, the American psychologist and inventor William Moulton Marston wrote about the Emotions of Normal People, in which book he presented his DISC Theory of human behavior. Marston conceptualized opposing behavioral traits along two axes placed at right angles—as a circular disc divided into quadrants denoting four types that he named: Dominance, Inducement, Submission, and Compliance.123 In the 1950s, an industrial psychologist, Walter Clarke, developed a DISC Assessment tool (based on Marston’s theory) as a testing method for companies to improve their selection of qualified employees. Although not intended as a personality test per se, Clarke created a list of adjectives for people to rate themselves relative to the four DISC traits. Clarke’s firm further enhanced and marketed the DISC-based assessment, which has reportedly been used by millions of people since its commercial inception in the early 1970s. Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was
William Marston was an American psychologist, inventor of an early prototype of the lie detector, self-help author, and comic book writer who created the character Wonder Woman. Marston is most famous in our world of 'what makes people tick' as the Father of Psycho-metrics which led to the creation of DISC and many other psych tests utilizing Quadrant Theory to determine individual personality types and their behavior preferences. I hate the DISC because I am an 'I' and the firm I worked for wanted a 'D,' "sorry Charlie no D no workie."
Ned Herrmann Brain Dominance
In the late 1970s, Ned Herrmann, manager of Management Education at GE, created the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument. After he learned about brain lateralization studies that were relatively new at the time, Herrmann theorized four different cognitive modes, which he originally called: Analytical, Sequential, Imaginative, and Interpersonal. (The first two modes were thought to be specialties of the brain’s left hemisphere, while the latter two were right hemisphere specialties.) A questionnaire enabled a user to gauge which of these four styles of thinking was his or her dominant preference. Herrmann promoted Whole Brain Thinking to educate employees and organizations to make good use of all four cognitive modes.
Herrmann’s idea was that varied temperaments are attributable to four diverse cognitive modes, which are fundamentally different ways that the two hemispheres of the brain process information. His labels for those four modes echo back to the ‘Big Four’ functions that we’ve traced from the primary atomic elements. This convergence suggests why Myers and Briggs found it necessary to refine Jung’s theory by adding their Judging and Perceiving functions:
- Herrmann’s logical, critical, technical, and quantitative Analytical mode characterizes the cutting, systematizing, Separating processes specialized by the brain’s left hemisphere (that Jung summarized as Thinking).
- Herrmann’s relational, emotional, spiritual and sensory Interpersonal mode characterizes the connecting, synthesizing, Relating processes specialized by the brain’s right hemisphere (that Jung called Feeling) Bonding.
- Herrmann’s practical, organized, detailed, and planned Sequential mode characterizes the preserving, order-setting, Stabilizing processes specialized by the brain’s left hemisphere (that Myers-Briggs associated with Judging).
- Herrmann’s experimental, holistic, intuitive, innovative, and conceptual Imaginative mode characterizes the random, exploring, Adapting processes specialized by the brain’s right hemisphere (that Myers-Briggs associated with Perceiving). Why Can't We Agree? - Michael Was
My favorite Ned Hermann take-away was 1) his placement of past genius level beings on the four quadrants. I ran home to tell my mom I came out next to Churchill, 2) how the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John each tell the story of Jesus according to humanity's four learning styles. Matt was the tax accountant; " he gives all the facts, details and numbers e.g. 5,000 loaves and fishes, walked on water. Mark was the take action guy filled his Gospel with the best Jesus war stories; Luke, was the doctor evangelical who told all the women and Jesus stories; John was the feeling prophet. When they asked Jesus, who's going to take care of your mom, he replied John.
I was introduced to the world of psycho-metrics as one of forty students in David Kolb's Organizational Behavior class at Case Western Reserve University. After, taking his Learning Style Inventory Instrument - it's very down market to call them tests - all forty of us, based on the results, headed to the four corners of the classroom. There were only two in my quadrant - excuse me - the Diverging Learning Style quadrant. The rest of the class was more evenly distributed. My brother in the corner and I queried Dr. Kolb, what's wrong with us? Answer: "Business administration is not your bag."
David A. Kolb is America’s foremost behavioral learning theorist whose interests and publications focus on experiential learning, the individual and social change, career development, and executive and professional education.
There are four primary learning styles: visual, auditory, read-write, and kinesthetic. People learn using a variety of these methods, but one method is usually predominant. Familiarity with the characteristics of each learning style and associated strategies allows you to address the needs of each type of learner.
I was exposed to this Quadrant stuff again, as a new home sales counselor, where I was supposed to size up my potential buyers as bulls, tigers, owls or lambs and tailor my sales pitch accordingly. I took my counselor title very seriously, by showing the Tigers the features, the Lambs the neighborhood, the Owls how they could afford the home and the Bulls which model fit their specifications. Over the course of four years and 100 first time home buyers of every ethnic group save the Chinese, I added the Doers, Dreamers, Deciders, Developers labels. My humble contribution to Carl Jung's work on psycho-analysis.
There's Eugene and then there is the rest of the world. It's not a city, it's one big ashram of 166,000 people living life in a parallel universe. Right-of-passage to obtain a residence permit and an Oregon driver's license, requires total immersion into the study of personal identity. Whom Am I? Where had I been all my life? Don't they teach that in school? Oh, that's right you're coming from Texas, you wouldn't understand.
Sold my, no-no, gave my car away, like taking a vow of biking, jogging or walking. Consumed copious quantities of quinoa - not really copious, how much quinoa can anybody eat? My previous lifetime of sedentary activities ruled out biking and jogging. Thirteen months of strenuous snail's pace walking, countless hours of coffee shop visitations and the search of used book stores for 'Who Am I' tomes led me to my life-time Epiphany:
I am a JACK of Clubs.
Even though I had lived in Cincinnati, Cleveland, Atlanta, and Scottsdale, my knowledge of Astrology was so limited, at voter registration I failed the, 'What's your sign?' question. My ignorance was dissipated through picture books at Borders - I might have made it through Calculus if all the formulas were illustrated with playing cards.
Robert Lee Camp became my new psycho-babel hero by making astrology simple enough that even an architect could understand. What convinced me of the wisdom of 52 'Who Am I' cards was how they correlated perfectly with Psycho-Metrics and Jungian Quadrant theory. The Bulls were Spades, the Tigers were Diamonds, the Owls were Clubs and the Lambs were Hearts."Each of us has a dominant mode, which is a distinctive feature of our personality—as characteristic and as central to our identity as our attitudes, beliefs, and emotional makeup." How the Brain Creates Personality Stephen M. Kosslyn and G. Wayne Miller
Love Cards gave the characteristics of each card and the meaning of Birth, Ego and Karma cards. However, his second book, Cards of your Destiny, opened my Pandora's fortune-telling box. Freud, Jung, Marston, Herrmann, Kolb and all the psychologists of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor can delineate in nauseating detail the answer to Who We Are and Why We Do What We Do but the System of the Cards can tell us where We Are Going.
The age old question nurture or nature. are we born with a fixed personality? If I took the Myers-Briggs today would my Type Indicator change? Probably, not enough to move me out of the ENFP box but in Astrology life goes in cycles - 'every day is a new day.' Nevertheless, each day comes in 52 varieties with annual performances on the world stage from 0-99 years of age. The Nurture part comes in 'the station born' silver spoon, chop sticks, finger bowl or no bowl.
Karma for the JACK of Clubs - Fear of Established Wisdom.
Oprah 63 Moore 63 Maxine 79
These JACK of Clubs Owls have each Decided to overcome their Fear of Established Wisdom in different ways. They share the same plot outline, getting new lines on their birthday, which foretells where they are headed, whether they want to go there or not.